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General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

Glossary Contents

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a critical piece of legislation that has reshaped the way data is handled across every sector. From multinational corporations to small businesses, every organization that deals with data relating to EU citizens must comply with the GDPR. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of GDPR and its implications on data privacy management.

GDPR is a complex regulation that has far-reaching implications for businesses and individuals alike. It is not just about data protection but also about giving individuals greater control over their personal information. Understanding the nuances of this regulation is crucial for any organization that collects, processes, or stores personal data.

Understanding GDPR

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union and the European Economic Area. It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside these areas. The regulation came into effect on May 25, 2018, and has since had a significant impact on how businesses handle personal data.

The GDPR aims to give control back to individuals over their personal data and to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying the regulation within the EU. It replaces the Data Protection Directive of 1995 and has significantly strengthened data protection provisions.

Key Principles of GDPR

The GDPR is built around six key principles. These principles are not just rules to follow, but they represent the ethos of the regulation. They are: lawfulness, fairness and transparency; purpose limitation; data minimisation; accuracy; storage limitation; integrity and confidentiality (security); and accountability. Understanding these principles is key to understanding the GDPR.

Each principle has its own set of rules and requirements, and failure to comply with any one of these principles can result in significant penalties. Therefore, it is crucial for businesses to understand these principles and ensure their data processing activities are in line with them.

Individual Rights Under GDPR

The GDPR provides several rights to individuals in relation to their personal data. These rights include the right to be informed, the right of access, the right to rectification, the right to erasure (also known as the 'right to be forgotten'), the right to restrict processing, the right to data portability, the right to object, and rights in relation to automated decision making and profiling.

These rights give individuals greater control over their personal data and require businesses to be transparent about how they use this data. Businesses must provide mechanisms for individuals to exercise these rights and must respond to requests from individuals within certain timeframes.

Implications of GDPR on Data Privacy Management

The GDPR has significant implications for data privacy management. It requires businesses to take a proactive approach to data protection, implementing measures to protect data from the outset and throughout the entire data processing lifecycle. This is a shift away from the previous approach where data protection was often an afterthought.

Under the GDPR, businesses must demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This means they must document their data processing activities, implement data protection policies and procedures, and show that they have appropriate security measures in place to protect personal data.

Data Protection by Design and by Default

One of the key requirements of the GDPR is the concept of 'data protection by design and by default'. This means that businesses must consider data protection at the initial stages of any project or process that involves personal data. They must also ensure that their default settings are the most privacy-friendly.

This requirement has a significant impact on how businesses design and implement their systems and processes. It requires a shift in thinking, where data protection is not just a compliance issue but an integral part of the design process.

Data Breach Notification

The GDPR introduces a mandatory data breach notification requirement. Businesses must notify the relevant supervisory authority of a data breach within 72 hours of becoming aware of it, unless the breach is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of individuals. They must also notify affected individuals if the breach is likely to result in a high risk to their rights and freedoms.

This requirement has significant implications for businesses. They must have procedures in place to detect, report and investigate a personal data breach. They must also understand what constitutes a data breach and what information they need to provide in a breach notification.

Penalties for Non-Compliance

The GDPR introduces significant penalties for non-compliance. Businesses can be fined up to €20 million or 4% of their global annual turnover, whichever is higher, for serious infringements. This includes violations of the basic principles for processing, such as consent, and infringements of the rights of data subjects.

For less serious infringements, businesses can be fined up to €10 million or 2% of their global annual turnover, whichever is higher. This includes violations of the obligations of the controller and the processor, the certification body, and the monitoring body.

Factors Considered in Determining Fines

The GDPR provides a list of factors that supervisory authorities must consider when determining the amount of a fine. These factors include the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement, the intentional or negligent character of the infringement, any action taken to mitigate the damage, the degree of responsibility of the controller or processor, any relevant previous infringements, the degree of cooperation with the supervisory authority, and other aggravating or mitigating factors.

This means that businesses can potentially reduce the amount of a fine by demonstrating that they have taken steps to comply with the GDPR, that they have cooperated with the supervisory authority, and that they have not committed any previous infringements.

Non-Financial Consequences

While the financial penalties for non-compliance with the GDPR can be significant, there are also non-financial consequences. These can include damage to reputation, loss of customer trust, and potential loss of business. In some cases, businesses may also be required to stop processing personal data, which can have serious operational implications.

Therefore, it is in the best interest of businesses to comply with the GDPR, not just to avoid fines, but also to maintain their reputation and the trust of their customers.


The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has significantly changed the data privacy landscape, introducing stringent requirements for businesses and providing individuals with greater control over their personal data. Understanding and complying with this regulation is crucial for any business that deals with personal data.

While the GDPR may seem daunting, it also presents an opportunity for businesses to improve their data privacy practices and build trust with their customers. By understanding the requirements of the GDPR and implementing robust data privacy management practices, businesses can not only avoid penalties but also gain a competitive advantage.

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