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Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)

Glossary Contents

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), enacted in 1966, is a federal law in the United States that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures, and grants nine exemptions to the statute.

As a key component of data privacy, the FOIA promotes transparency and accountability in government. It provides the public with a means to access and scrutinise government activities, thereby fostering an informed citizenry. This article will delve into the intricacies of the FOIA, and its implications for data privacy.

Historical Background

The FOIA was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 4, 1966, despite his initial reluctance. The Act was a response to the growing demand for government transparency during the Cold War era. It was intended to make government activities more transparent to the public, thereby promoting accountability and reducing corruption.

Over the years, the Act has been amended several times to broaden its scope and strengthen its provisions. Notably, the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 expanded the FOIA to include electronic records, a significant step towards adapting the Act to modern technology.

Significance of the Act

The FOIA is a cornerstone of democracy, as it empowers citizens to hold their government accountable. By providing the public with a legal mechanism to request access to government records, the Act promotes transparency and checks the potential for government abuse of power.

Moreover, the Act has played a crucial role in investigative journalism, enabling reporters to uncover significant stories of public interest. It has also been instrumental in facilitating research by scholars, non-profit organisations, and businesses.

Provisions of the FOIA

The FOIA applies to all federal agencies in the U.S., which are required to disclose records upon receiving a written request, except for those records that are protected from disclosure by the nine exemptions and three exclusions stipulated in the Act.

The Act also mandates that agencies maintain a current index of all major information systems, descriptions of all major information and record locator systems, and a handbook for obtaining various types and categories of public information.

Requesting Information

Any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information. The person making the request is not required to show a need or reason for seeking the information. However, the requester must describe the records sought in enough detail to enable agency personnel to locate them with a reasonable amount of effort.

Upon receiving a request, the agency is required to determine within 20 days (excepting Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays) whether to comply with it. The agency must notify the requester of its decision and the reasons for it and of the right to appeal any adverse determination to the head of the agency.

Exemptions and Exclusions

The FOIA includes nine exemptions that allow agencies to withhold certain types of information. These exemptions cover information that, if disclosed, could harm national security, personal privacy, confidential business information, and law enforcement interests, among others.

In addition to the exemptions, the Act also provides for three exclusions, which are rarely used provisions that pertain to particularly sensitive law enforcement and national security matters. When records (or parts of records) are excluded, the response to the requester is as if the records do not exist.

FOIA and Data Privacy

The FOIA plays a significant role in data privacy. While it promotes transparency and accountability, the Act also recognises the importance of protecting personal privacy. This is evident in its exemptions, which allow agencies to withhold information that could harm personal privacy.

However, balancing the public's right to know and the individual's right to privacy can be challenging. This balance is continually tested as technology evolves and as new issues pertaining to data privacy emerge.

Personal Privacy Exemption

Exemption 6 of the FOIA protects information about individuals in "personnel and medical files and similar files" when the disclosure of such information "would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy." This exemption is designed to protect the privacy of individuals identified in various federal records.

While this exemption is often invoked to withhold personal data, it is not absolute. If there is a significant public interest in the information, and if this interest outweighs the individual's privacy interest, the information may be disclosed.

Law Enforcement Exemption

Exemption 7(C) of the FOIA protects personal information in law enforcement records. The exemption covers "records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes," but only to the extent that the production of such records could "constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy."

Like Exemption 6, this exemption requires a balancing test. If the public interest in disclosure outweighs the individual's privacy interest, the information may be disclosed.

FOIA and Modern Challenges

The advent of modern technology has brought new challenges and opportunities for the FOIA. On one hand, the proliferation of electronic records has made it easier for agencies to store and search for information. On the other hand, the increasing volume of digital information has made it more difficult for agencies to manage and respond to FOIA requests.

Moreover, technological advancements have raised new issues pertaining to data privacy. As more personal information is stored and shared digitally, the risk of privacy breaches has increased. This has implications for the FOIA, which must balance the public's right to know with the need to protect personal privacy.

Electronic Records

The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 recognised that information is increasingly being stored and shared in electronic formats. The amendments mandate that agencies must provide requested records in any form or format if the record is readily reproducible in that form or format.

Furthermore, the amendments require agencies to make certain types of records, created by the agency on or after November 1, 1996, available electronically. These records include final opinions and orders made in the adjudication of cases, policy statements and interpretations, and administrative staff manuals and instructions that affect a member of the public.

FOIA and Social Media

With the rise of social media, new questions have arisen about the FOIA's applicability to social media records. While the Act does not specifically mention social media, it is generally understood that social media records can be subject to the FOIA if they are used for official government business.

However, determining what constitutes an official government record on social media can be challenging. Furthermore, the transient nature of some social media content, such as disappearing stories or live streams, poses additional challenges for record keeping and FOIA compliance.


The Freedom of Information Act is a vital tool for promoting government transparency and accountability. While the Act has evolved over the years to adapt to changes in technology and society, its core purpose remains the same: to provide the public with a legal mechanism to access government records.

As we move forward, the FOIA will continue to play a crucial role in data privacy. Balancing the public's right to know with the need to protect personal privacy will remain a key challenge. However, with careful interpretation and application of the Act's provisions, this balance can be achieved.

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