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Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)

Glossary Contents

The Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) form the backbone of data privacy legislation and guide how organisations should collect, use, and protect personal information. First proposed in the 1970s by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, these principles have been widely adopted and adapted worldwide. They are designed to balance the need for privacy with the benefits of data use.

Understanding and implementing the FIPPs is crucial for any organisation that collects or uses personal data. This not only ensures compliance with various data protection laws but also builds trust with customers and stakeholders. This article provides a comprehensive exploration of each principle, its implications, and its practical applications.

Overview of FIPPs

The FIPPs are based on the premise that individuals should have control over their personal information. They provide a framework for how personal data should be handled to respect individuals' privacy rights. The principles are not laws themselves, but they have influenced many data protection laws and regulations worldwide.

There are generally five recognised FIPPs, although some versions include additional principles. The five core principles are Notice, Choice and Consent, Access and Participation, Integrity and Security, and Enforcement and Redress. Each principle is discussed in detail in the following sections.


The Notice principle states that individuals should be informed about the collection and use of their personal data. This includes information about the purpose of data collection, how the data will be used, who will have access to the data and any potential data transfers to third parties.

Providing notice is often achieved through a privacy policy or notice. This document should be clear, concise, and easily accessible. It should also be provided before or at the time of data collection. The Notice principle is crucial for transparency and allows individuals to make informed decisions about their data.

Choice and Consent

The Choice and Consent principle requires organisations to provide individuals with choices about how their personal data is used and shared. This often involves obtaining the individual's consent before collecting or using their data.

Consent can be explicit or implicit. Explicit consent requires clear affirmative action by the individual, while implicit consent can be inferred from the individual's actions or inactions. The type of consent required often depends on the sensitivity of the data and the context of its use.

Access and Participation

The Access and Participation principle gives individuals the right to access their personal data held by an organisation. This includes the right to review the data, correct inaccuracies, and challenge the denial of access.

Providing access allows individuals to verify the accuracy of their data and to control its use. It also promotes accountability, as organisations must ensure they are collecting and using data responsibly. However, organisations must balance this right with other considerations, such as the security and privacy of others.

Integrity and Security

The Integrity and Security principle requires organisations to take steps to ensure the accuracy and security of personal data. This includes implementing appropriate security measures to protect the data from unauthorised access, disclosure, alteration, or destruction.

Security measures can include physical, technical, and administrative controls. The level of security should be commensurate with the sensitivity of the data and the potential harm that could result from a breach. Ensuring data integrity also involves keeping the data up-to-date and accurate.

Enforcement and Redress

The Enforcement and Redress principle requires mechanisms to enforce the FIPPs and provide remedies for individuals whose privacy rights have been violated. This can include internal procedures for handling complaints, external dispute resolution mechanisms, and legal remedies.

Enforcement mechanisms ensure that organisations are held accountable for their data practices and provide individuals with a means to protect their privacy rights. Redress can take various forms, including apologies, compensation, or changes in practices.

Additional Principles

Some versions of the FIPPs include additional principles, such as those related to data minimisation, purpose limitation, and accountability. These principles further enhance the protection of personal data.

Data Minimisation involves collecting only the minimum amount of data necessary for the stated purpose. Purpose Limitation restricts the use of data to the purposes stated at the time of collection. Accountability requires organisations to demonstrate compliance with the FIPPs.

Global Influence of FIPPs

The FIPPs have had a significant influence on data protection laws and regulations worldwide. They have been incorporated into various international frameworks, such as the OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data and the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Despite variations in the specific provisions of these laws, the core principles of the FIPPs remain consistent. Understanding and implementing the FIPPs can, therefore, help organisations navigate the complex landscape of global data protection laws.


The Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) provide a foundational framework for data privacy. They balance the need for data use with the protection of individual privacy rights. By understanding and implementing these principles, organisations can ensure compliance with data protection laws, build trust with customers, and promote responsible data practices.

While the FIPPs are not laws themselves, they have influenced many data protection laws and regulations worldwide. Therefore, a strong understanding of these principles is crucial for any organisation that collects or uses personal data. This article has provided a comprehensive exploration of each principle, its implications, and its practical applications.

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